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Confusion: Topaz, Chrysolite, Sapphire

The tenth stone is Crisolitus and it is of golden colour & sparkling as fire. his power is to gather together deuills & winds. And his vertue is to defend the place where it is from euill spiritts & dead men that they do not there any euill. And that deuills obey to thee. And his figure is vulture that is a vowter.Sepher Razielis

First let’s address the stone Crisolitus. As this stone is referred to today is peridot, it is a green stone with hints of orange when exposed to light. Yet the description refers to a golden stone which sparkles like fire. There are numerous references of Crisolitus to Topaz ranging from Lecouteux to the Stockholm papyrus. This is likely because the derivation of chrysolite from Greek means golden and to describe a stone as golden which is actually green makes little sense. To add further to this, in the time period three names were used to refer to each other, those being Chrisolite of two varieties green and red where green is peridot and red is topaz. Topaz itself has referred to golden sapphire. So this makes it clear that some of the names in old lapidaries are a class of stones while others are more specific. Considering the description of the 10th stone as a golden color and sparkling as fire does indicate an orange or red topaz. To support this claim is the inclusion of Lecouteux, that many stones can actually be created and synthetic and hold the same properties as the natural stone.

The oldest known source of this work according to Peterson is Veterum Sophorum Sigilla which was included in Trinum Magicum (13th century),

“The image of a vulture, on Chrysolite, has the virtue of curbing demons and calling them together, and of protecting the place in which it is kept from evil spirits, and from haunting by them, and it makes demons obedient to the wearer.”Veterum Sophorum Sigilla

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